by Alexa T.
Have you ever woken up happy from a good dream? Or terrified from a horrible nightmare? What are the basics of dreams? The first thing you need to know is that there are four stages of sleep. The first one is light sleep. This is when you start to become sleepy and drowsy. The next one is stabler sleep, when it is hard to wake you up because of chemicals. The third stage is deep sleep, when growth hormones are released. The fourth stage is when you usually start to dream. This is called REM* sleep. REM sleep lasts for 90 minutes and normally dreams evolve in this stage.
Now the big question: What are dreams? I’ll tell you all about why we dream, what happens when we dream, and why we dream what we dream.
Why do we dream? According to Sigmund Frued, we dream to fulfill our wishes and to remember. In 2010, researchers found out that the people who had dreamed of being in a 3D maze were quicker and faster at real life mazes. We also dream to forget. If, for example, if you got a bad grade, dreams distract you from your grade and help you focus on your dream and other things. We dream of places we’ve been, people we’ve met, or of past experiences.
What happens during our sleep? During deep sleep, you are very hard to wake up, your muscles are relaxed and your breathing is steady, slow, and rhythmic. After the stage of deep sleep, your muscles are temporarily paralysed and you have rapid eye movement. You then are completely asleep and a clear liquid called cerebrospinal fluid surrounding you brain and spine clears and refreshes your brain.
Why do we dream what we dream? We dream of past experiences, places we’ve been to, people we’ve met, things we’re scared of, or things we enjoy and like. For example, you went on a scary ride in Universal Studios during the day and you dreamt of going on a really scary ride in your sleep. This is an example of dreaming about past experiences. An example of dreaming of people you’ve met is that you meet a friendly crossing guard and you dream about finding him at your birthday party.
People will always dream! Dreaming is something that will make you wake up happy, or wake up with your heart beating and with a cold sweat. So think of positive things, enjoy life, and DREAM BIG!!!
*(REM-Rapid Eye Movement)
by Sean C. and Ryan C.
Kevin Garcia and Jon Tse are entrepreneurs that have discovered a way to turn stone into paper. These Australian entrepreneurs were trying to find a more environmentally-friendly way to produce paper, when they came up with the idea to create paper out of stone. Deforestation has killed many of the world’s trees and they felt that part of the cause was the creation of paper. Billions of sheets of paper are used for everything from math to origami. The process of making paper from stone includes crushing limestone into fine powder, mixing the powder with HDPE (a high density polyethylene), it is then divided into small pellets, and rolled into paper-sized sheets then dried. The main difference besides the environmentally-friendliness is that it is durable and waterproof.
by Jia C., Cherry L., Erika K.
Some companies have been writing fake information on the packages, wrappers, and bottles of some foods. Foods that are unhealthy might have labels that are written as being healthy and may trick a consumer into buying them.
Thin Containers: When food and drinks are packaged in thin containers, people tend to think that the food and drink have fewer calories than items that are packaged in wider packages. (according to research).
Images of fields, farm, grain, produce, etc. on packaging:
Images of anything can help consumers make conclusions about a product, but these images may not tell the truth about your item. For example, as written in the Washington Post, "there could be pictures such as whole wheat still in its husk on a box of crackers made of only refined flour." Keep an eye out for these and don’t be fooled by reassuring photos or illustrations of “healthy” things.
Eco-friendly Packaging: When the packaging material is eco-friendly, that makes us think that the contents are healthy, too. However, this may not be true. Some examples of eco-friendly packaging are glass bottles, brown paper, and cardboard. And, the prices of the items could be higher for no reason!
The only way you can see if an item is healthy and nutritious or unhealthy in disguise is to check the ingredient list or the nutrition facts. Make sure to be careful about buying certain products that could be different from what you’d expect!
by Danyaal M.
Hey, have you ever heard of radiation? I have, and as a matter of fact, there is more than one type of radiation.
One type of radiation that really appeals to me is electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic radiation is “pure energy which is consisting of interacting electrical and magnetic waves oscillating through space.” When the waves oscillate, they get faster in energy. It is all around us and takes many forms of energy such as radio waves. Sunlight is also a form of electromagnetic energy.
Another form of radiation is nuclear energy. Nuclear radiation in the form of elementary particles and photons is emitted during reactions that involve the Nucleus of an atom. One example of this is during the fission of U-235. The nuclear radiation that was released contains neutrons and gamma rays.
As you can see, radiation can be all around us and we are not always aware of it.
by Jordan P., Aslan W., Jonathan C., & Venkatesh V.
Have you ever wondered how playing cards are made? Well, a playing card company called Bicycle, starts this process by unrolling two rolls of paper one on top of the other and then sticking them together with black glue. This is now your playing card stock. Then, this big roll of card stock is moved over to the web press where they are unrolled for the design to be printed on their front and back. It continues and cuts each deck into sheets. This machine can make 10 decks per second.
Next, each sheet of 52 cards will be manually inspected for any defects in the design or in the feeling of the card. If they pass, they will then be sent into the finishing process. The sheets are put into machines where they are cut into strips based on their suit and then punched out of the strips by machines that can do their job at a rate of 350 cards per minute. Penultimately, the machine collects the 52 cards that were punched and continues the process by putting the cards into a perfectly made box of cards.
The box, now filled, will continue down the ramp where a packager will place them into boxes of ten to be shipped. Maybe these decks will be shipped to a store near you. The last step in the process of making cards is playing with them. After all, they are made to have fun. So, learn a new card game or some tricks and have fun playing!!!